I experienced this error when opening Management Studio just after the installation of Windows update.
Not sure about the reason but I got a similar error when opening Visual Studio as well. I could not find the exact reason for this and closing and re-opening did not help either. I just tried with killing all Visual Studio related tasks using Task Manager and then tried, yes, it worked.
Not sure whether you faced this with Management Studio before. If someone has more details on this specifically to SQL Server, please share.